General Road Rules Rules and traffic signs in the UK….

Every country has their own rules on the road, written or unwritten. It is important that you know and understand these rules before you go on the road in the UK.


The following general road rules and tips may help you adjust to driving in the UK:

  • Among the many strange habits of the British is that of driving on the left-hand side of the road. If you’re used to driving on the right it may be helpful to have a reminder (e.g. ‘think left!’) on your car’s dashboard. Take extra care when pulling out of junctions, one-way streets and at roundabouts. Remember to look first to the right when crossing the road and drivers of left-hand cars should make sure that headlights are dipped to the left when driving at night.
  • If you’re unused to driving on the left, you should be prepared for some disorientation, although most people have few problems adjusting to it. Some drivers have a real fear of driving on the ‘wrong’ side of the road. If this applies to you, the International Drivers Service (020-8570 9190) specialises in teaching foreigners how to survive on British roads. The traffic system, density and speed of traffic are all also completely alien to many foreigners, particularly Americans.
  • All motorists are advised to carry a warning triangle, although it isn’t mandatory. If you have an accident or a breakdown, you should signal this by switching on your hazard warning lights. If you have a warning triangle, it must be placed at the edge of the road, at least 50m behind the car on secondary roads and at least 150m on motorways.
  • There’s no priority to the right (or left) on British roads (unlike, for example, the continental priority to the right). At all crossroads and junctions, there’s either an octagonal stop sign with a solid white line on road or a triangular give way sign (dotted white line on road), where a secondary road meets a major road. ‘Stop’ or ‘give way’ may also be painted on the road surface. You must stop completely at a stop sign (all four wheels must come to rest), before pulling out on to a major road, even if you can see that no traffic is approaching. At a give way sign, you aren’t required to stop, but must give priority to traffic already on the major road.
  • The different types of traffic signs can usually be distinguished by their shape and colour as follows: a) Warning signs are mostly triangular with red borders; b) Signs within circles with a red border are mostly prohibitive; c) Signs within blue circles, but no red border give positive instructions; d) Direction signs are mostly rectangular and are distinguished by their background colour; blue for motorway signs, green for primary routes and white for secondary routes. Local direction signs often have blue borders with a white background. Signs with brown backgrounds are used to direct motorists to tourist attractions. All signs are shown in a booklet entitled Know Your Traffic Signs (see below).
  • On roundabouts (traffic circles), vehicles already on the roundabout (coming from your right) have priority over those entering it. There are many roundabouts in the UK, which, although they’re a bit of a free-for-all, speed up traffic considerably and are usually preferable to traffic lights, particularly outside rush hours (although some busy roundabouts also have traffic lights). Some roundabouts have a filter lane, reserved for traffic turning left. Traffic flows clockwise round round­abouts and not anti-clockwise as in countries where traffic drives on the right. You should signal as you approach the exit you wish to take. In addition to large roundabouts, there are also mini-roundabouts, indicated by a round blue sign. Roundabouts are particularly useful for making a U-turn when you discover that you’re travelling in the wrong direction.
  • On country roads, sharp bends are shown by signs and the severity (tightness) of a bend is indicated by white arrows on a black background (or vice versa); the more arrows, the tighter the bend (so slow down).
  • For all adults (14 years and over) the wearing of front and rear seat belts is compulsory and the driver is responsible for ensuring children under 14 use the correct seat belts or child restraints. Seat belts or restraints must be appropriate for the age and weight of a child which the law puts ito the following categories; Children up to 3 years old and Children aged 3 and above, until they reach EITHER their 12th birthday OR 135cm in height who must use the correct child seat. Children over 1.35m (4ft 5in) in height, or who are 12 or 13 years old can use adult seat belts. Child seats are designed for various weights of child. As a general guide: a) Baby seats are for babies weighing up to 13kgs (birth to 9-12 months) or until they can support their own head. They face backwards and are fitted into the front or rear of the car with a seat belt. They should never be used in the front where the front seat is protected with a frontal airbag. b) Child car seats are for children weighing between 20 to 40lb (9 to 18kg), aged nine months to about four years, and have their own straps. They face forwards and are usually fitted in the back seat of a car with a seat belt. c) Booster seats and booster cushions are for children weighing 33 to 80lb (15 to 36 kg), aged around 4 years and upwards. They are designed to raise them so they can use an adult seat belt safely across both their chest and lower abdomen.
  • Special harnesses and belts are also available for the disabled. All belts, seats, harnesses and restraints must be correctly fitted and adjusted, without which they may be useless. Some child car seats have fatal flaws and many cars have seat belt straps that are too short for rear-facing baby seats. It’s estimated that some two-thirds of child seats are wrongly fitted. The RAC (08705-722 722) has a safety video entitled There’s No Excuse! If all available restraints in a car are in use, children may travel unrestrained (although this is extremely unwise).
  • It’s estimated that seat belts would prevent 75 per cent of the deaths and 90 per cent of the injuries to those involved in accidents. Lap belts fitted in the centre rear seat of many cars are dangerous and should be replaced. In addition to the risk of death or injury, you can be fined £50 for ignoring the seat belt laws. It’s the driver’s responsibility to ensure that passengers are properly fastened. If you’re exempt from wearing a seat belt for medical reasons, a safety belt exemption certificate is required from your doctor. The ultimate protection is supposed to be afforded by airbags, although a number of deaths have been blamed on them in recent years.
  • Don’t drive in lanes reserved for buses and taxis, unless neces­sary to avoid a stationary vehicle or obstruction, and give priority to authorised users. Bus lanes are indicated by road markings and signs indicate the period of operation, which is usually during rush hours only (although some lanes are in use 24 hours a day), and which vehicles are permitted to use them. Bus drivers get irate if you illegally drive in their lane and you can be fined for doing so.
  • Headlights must be used at night on all roads except unrestricted roads with street lamps not more than 185m (200 yards) apart and subject to a speed limit of 30mph. You must use your headlamps or front fog lamps at any time when visibility is generally reduced to less than 100m. It’s legal to drive on parking (side) lights on roads with street lighting (although they do little to help you see or be seen). Headlight flashing has a different meaning in different countries. In some, it means “after you”, while in others it means “get out of my way”. In the UK, headlamp flashing has no legal status apart from warning another driver of your presence, although it’s usually used to give priority to another vehicle, e.g. when a car is waiting to exit from a junction. Hazard warning lights (all indicators operating simultaneously) are used to warn other drivers of an obstruction, e.g. an accident or a traffic jam on a motorway (using them when parking illegally has no legal significance unless you’ve broken down).
  • Front fog or spot lights must be fitted in pairs at a regulation height. Rear fog lamps should be used only when visibility is seriously reduced, i.e. to less than 100m, and shouldn’t be used when it’s just dark or raining. Unfortunately, many British drivers don’t know what fog lamps are for and use them when visibility is good, but don’t use them (or any lights) in fog.
  • The sequence of traffic lights is red, red + amber (yellow), green, amber and back to red. Red + amber is a warning to get ready to go, but you mustn’t start moving until the light changes to green. Amber means stop at the stop line. You may proceed only if the amber light appears after you’ve crossed the stop line or when stopping might cause an accident. A green filter light may be shown in addition to the full lamp signals, which means you may drive in the direction shown by the arrow, irrespective of other lights showing. You may notice that many traffic lights have an uncanny habit of changing to green when you approach them, particularly during off-peak hours. This isn’t magic: around half of the UK’s traffic signals are vehicle-activated, where sensors between 40 and 150m from the lights (depending on the speed limit) are set into the road and change the light to green unless other traffic already has priority. Signals stay at green for a minimum of seven seconds, although it can be as long as one minute.
  • At many traffic lights, cameras are installed to detect motorists driving through red lights (you receive notification around one month later and must prove that you weren’t driving to avoid prosecution). Traffic lights are placed on the left side of the road at junctions and may also be duplicated opposite.
  • Always approach pedestrian crossings with caution and don’t park or overtake another vehicle on the approach to a crossing, marked by a double line of studs or zigzag lines. At pelican (pedestrian) crossings, a flashing amber light follows the red light, to warn you to give way to pedestrians before proceeding. Pedestrians have the legal right of way once they’ve stepped on to a crossing without traffic lights and you must stop. Motorists who don’t stop are liable to heavy penalties. Where a road crosses a public footpath, e.g. when entering or emerging from property or a car park bordering a road, you must give way to pedestrians.
  • The UK lacks a rule of the road which compels slow-moving vehicles (such as tractors or cars towing caravans) to pull over to allow other traffic to overtake. The AA states that a driver towing a caravan who sees more than six vehicles following him, should pull over and let them pass, but it isn’t compulsory. Worse still, timid drivers who never overtake anything unless it’s stationary, bunch up behind slow moving vehicles, thus ensuring that nobody can overtake without having to pass a whole stream of traffic (or forcing a gap).
  • Fines can be exacted for a wide range of motoring offences, although on-the-spot fines aren’t imposed. Convictions for most motoring offences means an ‘endorsement’ of your licence, which results in penalty points being imposed. Serious offences, such as dangerous or drunken driving involving injury or death to others, can result in a prison sentence.
  • Many motorists seem to have an aversion to driving in the left-hand lane on a three-lane motor­way, which in effect reduces the motorway to two lanes. It’s illegal to overtake on an inside lane unless traffic is being channelled in a different direction. Motorists must indicate before overtaking and when moving back into an inside lane after overtaking, e.g. on a dual carriageway or motorway. Learner drivers, pedestrians, cyclists and mopeds aren’t permitted on motorways.
  • White lines mark the separation of traffic lanes. A solid single line or two solid lines means no overtaking in either direction. A solid line to the left of the centre line, i.e. on your side of the road, means that overtaking is prohibited in your direction. You may overtake only when there’s a single broken line in the middle of the road or double lines with a broken line on your side of the road. If you drive a left-hand drive car, take extra care when over­taking (the most dangerous manoeuvre in motoring) and when turning right. It’s wise to have a special overtaking mirror fitted to your car.
  • The edges of motorways and A-roads are often marked with a white line with a ribbed surface, which warns you through tyre sound and vibration when you drive too close to the edge of the road.
  • In the UK, there are three main kinds of automatic railway crossings: automatic half-barrier level crossings, automatic open crossings and open level crossings without gates or barriers. Always approach a railway level crossing slowly and stop: a) As soon as the amber light is on and the audible alarm sounds followed by flashing red warning lights (half-barrier level crossings and automatic open crossings); b)As soon as the barrier or half-barrier starts to fall (if applicable) or the gates start to close; c)In any case when a train approaches. Many automatic and manual crossings have a telephone to contact the signalman in an emergency or to ask for advice or information. In remote areas, open level crossings have no gates, barriers, attendant or traffic lights. Some level crossings have gates, but no attendant or red lights. If there’s a telephone, contact the signalman to check that it’s okay to cross; otherwise, provided a train isn’t coming, open the gates wide and cross as quickly as possible. Close the gates after crossing. Crossings without gates must be approached with extreme caution (including pedestrian railway crossings).
  • Be particularly wary of cyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists. It isn’t always easy to see them, particularly when they’re hidden by your car’s blind spots or when cyclists are riding at night without lights. When overtaking, always
    give them a wide berth. If you knock them off their bikes, you may have a difficult time convincing the police that it wasn’t your fault; far better to avoid them (and the police). Drive slowly near schools and be wary of children getting on or off buses.
  • A ‘GB’ nationality plate (sticker) must be affixed to the rear of a British- registered car when motoring abroad. Drivers of foreign-registered cars in the UK must have the appropriate nationality plate affixed to the rear of their car (not an assortment). Yellow headlights, which in the past were fitted to all vehicles in France, are illegal in the UK (except for visitors) and should be converted.
  • If you need spectacles or contact lenses to read a number plate 79.4mm high at a distance of 20.5m (67ft) in good daylight, then you must always wear them when motoring. It’s advisable to carry a spare pair of glasses or contact lenses in your car.
  • A new law was introduced on 1st December 2003 prohibiting the use of mobile phones while driving (or even stationary with the engine running), unless it’s a hands-free phone in a cradle (using headphones and a microphone is legal, provided the phone is in a cradle). Using a phone when driving is one of the most common and hazardous driving habits in the UK and has been calculated to increase the risk of an accident by some 400 per cent (even hands-free phones are considered to be unsafe, as they distract the driver’s attention). New legislation to increase the penalty for using a hand-held phone whilst driving came into force in February 2007. The fine increased to £60 and three penalty points on your licence. Penalty points can mean higher insurance costs. If you get six points within two years of passing your test, your licence will be revoked and you will need to re-sit the test. If the case goes to court, you could risk a maximum fine of £1,000, which rises to £2,500 for the driver of a bus, coach, or heavy goods vehicle
  • A booklet published by the Department for Transport entitled The Highway Code (The Stationery Office) contains advice for all road users, including motorists, motorcyclists and pedestrians. It’s available for 99p from bookshops, British motoring organisations and on the internet ( ) and is essential reading. Although The Highway Code shows many commonly used road signs, a comprehensive explanation is given in a booklet entitled Know Your Traffic Signs, available at most bookshops for £3. A free booklet entitled On the Road in Great Britain (in English, French, German, Italian and Spanish) is published by the Department for Transport and is available from British motoring organisations, travel agents and government offices.

Mounted police….

Mounted police are police who patrol on horseback or camelback. They continue to serve in remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be picturesque or ceremonial, but they are also employed in crowd control because of their mobile mass and height advantage and increasingly in the UK for crime prevention and high visibility policing roles. The added height and visibility that the horses give their riders allow officers to observe a wider area, but it also allows people in the wider area to see the officers, which helps deter crime and helps people find officers when they need them.[1] Mounted police may be employed for specialized duties ranging from patrol of parks and wilderness areas, where police cars would be impractical or noisy, to riot duty, where the horse serves to intimidate those whom it is desired to disperse through its larger size, or may be sent in to detain trouble makers or offenders from the crowd. For example, in the UK, mounted police are most often seen at football matches, although they are also a common sight on the streets of many towns and cities as a visible police presence and crime deterrent during the day and night. Some mounted police units are trained in search and rescue due to the horse’s ability to travel where vehicles cannot.

A mounted police officer passes Buckingham Palace, London.

History of the horse in Britain…

The known history of the horse in Britain starts with horse remains found in Pakefield, Suffolk, dating from 700,000 BC, and in Boxgrove, West Sussex, dating from 500,000 BC. Early humans were active hunters of horses, and finds from the Ice Age have been recovered from many sites. At that time, land which now forms the British Isles was part of a peninsula attached to continental Europe by a low-lying area now known as “Doggerland,” and land animals could migrate freely between what is now island Britain and continental Europe. The domestication of horses, and their use to pull vehicles, had begun in Britain by 2500 BC; by the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, British tribes could assemble armies which included thousands of chariots.

Horse improvement as a goal, and horse breeding as an enterprise, date to medieval times; King John imported a hundred Flemish stallions, Edward III imported fifty Spanish stallions, and various priories and abbeys owned stud farms. Laws were passed restricting and prohibiting horse exports and for the culling of horses considered undesirable in type. By the 17th century, specific horse breeds were being recorded as suitable for specific purposes, and new horse-drawn agricultural machinery was being designed. Fast coaches pulled by teams of horses with Thoroughbred blood could make use of improved roads, and coaching inn proprietors owned hundreds of horses to support the trade. Steam power took over the role of horses in agriculture from the mid-19th century, but horses continued to be used in warfare for almost another 100 years, as their speed and agility over rough terrain remained unequalled. Working horses had all but disappeared from Britain by the 1980s, and today horses in Britain are kept almost wholly for recreational purposes.


Why is the Thames River a Brown Colour?

The River Thames is changing its reputation from that ‘dirty old river’

River ThamesFar too often when I write about environmental issues where it seems we are highlighting new causes for concern and the negative impact that we are having on our planet. Whilst I feel obliged to share the stories that spotlight new reports and concerns it’s not often enough that I find some truly good news that I feel like shouting about. Today however is an exception to the rule and goes to show what new standards can accomplish in reviving the habitat for some of our fellow species and our overall environment, even in the heart of a huge city.

I grew up in rural England and was lucky enough to be surrounded by fields and streams that were essentially the picture postcard of the English countryside. My grandparents lived in London and every summer I was lucky enough to spend a few weeks with them to explore the city and all that it had to offer including a very large and dirty river, I guess I caught a bug to return to the town and it’s exactly where I headed when old enough to do so. Through the centre of London flows the River Thames, the ancient base for the city which helped it grow so rapidly through the centuries. Growing up the older generation would tell you about how the big brown river was dead and toxic and how any romance of the visible aspects of the river were lost in the fact that it was so heavily polluted. It really was the colour of mud and unless you were many miles up the river towards Oxford the likelihood of finding much wildlife in or on the water wasn’t terribly high. A new report however by the environment agency in the UK shows that the old river has is changing  rapidly and for the good in recent times.

river-thamesPreviously declared biologically dead the water is now once again incredibly supportive tool wide variety of fish, birds and other wildlife. The agency revealed that river water quality in England shows improved results for the 20th consecutive year as a result of tougher EU (European Union) regulations. In fact throughout the country more than two thirds of all rivers were graded as good or very good under the existing guidelines something that was unimaginable in the 1970s. A full report assessing water quality and wildlife statistics will be published toward the end of 2010, the improvements have been the result of stringent regulations and improvements by water companies, far tougher consequences for polluters and significant changes to industry waste and farming practices in the country.

Much of the lower portion of the river is tidal and record numbers of sea trout have recently been found many miles upstream in waters that previously would have killed them. Paul Leinster from the environment agency added that “Rivers are their cleanest for over a century and the environment agency is working hard to ensure this trend continues”

I wish my grandparents were alive to see the gradual transformation of the “dirty old river” into a cleaner and healthier thoroughfare through the heart of the city but needless to say I’m thrilled to read this report and share it with you.